Terms and Phrases

bhangra: a dance from the Punjab region

bida’: innovation that is harmful to the religion

deen: the religion, spirituality, and all things that encompass Islam

çeşme: a public water fountain

charpays: a wooden and roped table/bed

Chitrali topi: a hat that originated in Chitral; made from wool and rolled up on the sides. This hat is commonly worn by Khowar and Pashtun men, and variations of it are found throughout Punjab, Gilgit-Baltistan, and Afghanistan.

dholak: a type of drum played in South Asia

dupatta: a long scarf that accompanies traditional dresses of South Asia; meant to cover the chest and/or hair

Farsiwan: Farsi speakers

firni: a rice pudding popular in the Indian subcontinent

gheerah: a type of protective jealousy over the deen

gulab jamun and falooda: desserts from South Asia

gulley: alley

hadith: a saying of the Prophet pbuh or a description of his actions

haya: modesty, shyness

idda: waiting period a Muslim woman must go through after a divorce; this period usually lasts a couple of months

jinn: beings in Islamic tradition made from smokeless flames

khattak: a dance from South Asia

mehndi: henna

mihrab: a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates what direction the qibla is

minbar: a stand in a mosque where sermons are given by imams

Moor/Moorish: indigenous Berbers

mujahid: people who fight for Islam

mushaf: written copy of the Qur’an

nur sur: Balochi throat singing

parchami: word for communists fighting in the Afghan Civil War

pardah: a term for women referring to an overall state of modesty, usually displayed outwardly by wearing loose clothing and a long scarf over one’s head

rubab: a lute-like instrument played throughout Central and South Asia

shalwar kameez: loose garments worn by men and women in South Asia

sheeko: a Somali word for storytelling

sitar: an instrument commonly played throughout South Asia

tasbeeh: prayer beads

zanana: women and children